Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-based extrafibrillar demineralization to optimize dentin bonding durability

Yaning Zhao, Jian Yu, Jingmei Guo, Hongye Yang, Cui Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To investigate the effects of a sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC)-based extrafibrillar demineralization conditioner on dentin bonding durability and explore the possible mechanisms. Methods: The SCMC-based extrafibrillar demineralization conditioner was facilely developed by dissolving SCMC into deionized water at an appropriate concentration. A single layer collagen mineralization/demineralization model was designed to visualize extrafibrillar demineralization in detail. Dentin surfaces of human third molars were conditioned with 3 % SCMC or 37 % phosphoric acid (PA). The morphology, composition, and mechanical properties of conditioned dentin from each group were characterized. To evaluate dentin bonding performance, SCMC- and PA- conditioned dentin were applied with adhesive restoration using the dry-bonding technique. The microtensile bond strength (MTBS), interface nanoleakage, and in situ zymography were measured after 24 h of water storage, 10,000 thermocycles, or one month of collagenase aging. The inhibitory effect of SCMC on recombinant human matrix metalloproteinase-2 (rhMMP-2) and cell toxicity were also investigated. Results: After SCMC conditioning, both demineralization of extrafibrillar minerals and retention of intrafibrillar minerals were observed in the single layer collagen model and the dentin ultrastructure. The mechanical properties of SCMC-conditioned dentin were largely preserved. Compared with PA, SCMC conditioning produced greater MTBS values and less nanoleakage expression after aging. Endogenous gelatinolytic activity was suppressed in SCMC-conditioned dentin. In addition to being nontoxic, the inhibition of rhMMP-2 by SCMC was confirmed to be dose-dependent. Significance: From the perspective of minimal intervention, the SCMC-based extrafibrillar demineralization conditioner could improve dentin bonding durability, suggesting a promising strategy to extend the service life of adhesive restorations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2096-2114
Number of pages19
JournalDental Materials
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec
Externally publishedYes


  • Dentin bonding
  • Extrafibrillar demineralization
  • Matrix metalloproteinases
  • Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


Dive into the research topics of 'Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-based extrafibrillar demineralization to optimize dentin bonding durability'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this