Smelting of metallic titanium from an oxide flux using a CaO-stabilized ZrO2solid-electrolyte electrode

Ichiro Seki, Kazuhiro Nagata, Jun Tanabe, Shin Ichi Yamaura, Xin Min Wang

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    1 Citation (Scopus)


    We propose a smelting reduction process for titanium that uses a flux without any added deoxidizer, such as metallic calcium. For the smelting flux, material from the CaO-Al2O3-ZrO2ternary system was utilized, and an arbitrary quantity of TiO2was added to the ternary flux. The mixed TiO2-bearing quaternary flux was electrochemically treated in a reaction cell made of CaO-stabilized ZrO2solid electrolyte above the melting temperature of titanium. Small, lustrous particles were observed on the crushed flux surface after smelting and quenching, and these were analyzed by optical microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) during scanning electron microscopy, and wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The formation of metallic titanium was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction data and elemental mapping by EDX, and was determined to be reasonable from thermodynamic investigations.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1419-1427
    Number of pages9
    JournalMaterials Transactions
    Issue number9
    Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jan 1


    • CaO-AlO-ZrOflux
    • CaO-stabilized ZrO
    • Crucible-saturated composition
    • Electrode
    • Equilibrium
    • Oxygen partial pressure
    • Solid electrolyte
    • TiO

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Materials Science(all)
    • Condensed Matter Physics
    • Mechanics of Materials
    • Mechanical Engineering


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