Sleep-states-transition model by body movement and estimation of sleep-stage-appearance probabilities by Kalman filter

Yosuke Kurihara, Kajiro Watanabe, Hiroshi Tanaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


The judgment standards of RK method include ambiguities and are thus compensated by subjective interpretations of sleep-stage scorers. This paper presents a novel method to compensate uncertainties in judgments by the subjective interpretations by the sleep-model estimation approach and by describing the judgments in probabilistic terms. Kalman filter based on the two sleep models with no body movement and with body movement was designed. Sleep stages judged by three different scorers were rejudged by the filter. The two sleep models were stochastically estimated from biosignals from 15 nights data and the rejudged scores by the filter were evaluated by the data from 5 nights. The average values of kappa statistics, which show the degree of agreement, were 0.85, 0.89, and 0.81, respectively, for the original sleep stages. Because the new method provides probabilities on how surely the sleep belongs to each sleep stage, we were able to determine the most, second most, and third most probable sleep stage. The kappa statistics between the most probable sleep stages were improved to 0.90, 0.93, and 0.84, respectively. Those of sleep stages determined from the most and second most probable were 0.92, 0.94, and 0.89 and those from the most, second most, and third most probable were 0.95, 0.97, and 0.92. The sleep stages estimated by the filter are expressed by probabilistic manner, which are more reasonable in expression than those given by deterministic manner. The expression could compensate the uncertainties in each judgments and thus were more accurate than the direct judgments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5549911
Pages (from-to)1428-1435
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Nov


  • R-K method
  • sleep stages
  • sleep-stage transition probability matrix
  • sleep-stage-state variable equation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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