The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of biodegradable gelatin hydrogels as the controlled-release carrier of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to enhance bone regeneration at a skull defect of nonhuman primates. Hydrogels with 3 different water contents were prepared through glutaraldehyde crosslinking of gelatin with an isoelectric point of 9.0 under varied reaction conditions. A critical-sized defect (6 mm in diameter) was prepared at the skull bone of skeletally mature cynomolgus monkeys, and gelatin hydrogels incorporating various doses of BMP-2 were applied to the defects. When the bone regeneration was evaluated by soft radiography and bone mineral density (BMD) examinations, the gelatin hydrogel incorporating BMP-2 exhibited significantly higher osteoinduction activity than did an insoluble bone matrix that incorporated BMP-2 (one of the best osteoinduction systems), although the activity depended on the water content of hydrogels. BMD enhancement was highest for the gelatin hydrogel that had a water content of 97.8 wt% among all types of hydrogels. Moreover, the gelatin hydrogel enabled BMP-2 to induce the bone regeneration in nonhuman primates even at low doses. We conclude that the controlled release of BMP-2 for a certain time period was essential to inducing the osteoinductive potential of BMP-2.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology