DNA-binding proteins trigger various cellular functions and determine cellular fate. Before performing functions such as transcription, DNA repair, and DNA recombination, DNA-binding proteins need to search for and bind to their target sites in genomic DNA. Under evolutionary pressure, DNA-binding proteins have gained accurate and rapid target search and binding strategies that combine three-dimensional search in solution, one-dimensional sliding along DNA, hopping and jumping on DNA, and intersegmental transfer between two DNA molecules. These mechanisms can be achieved by the unique structural and dynamic properties of these proteins. Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations have characterized the molecular actions of DNA-binding proteins in detail. Furthermore, these methodologies have begun to characterize liquid condensates induced by liquid-liquid phase separation, e.g., molecular principles of uptake and dynamics in droplets. This review discusses the molecular action of DNA-binding proteins on DNA and in liquid condensate based on the latest studies that mainly focused on the model protein p53.
- intrinsically disordered protein
- liquid-liquid phase separation
- molecular dynamics
- target search
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
- Molecular Biology