Simple modeling of an abdomen of pregnant women and its application to SAR estimation

Hiroki Kawai, Koichi Ito, Masaharu Takahashi, Kazuyuki Saito, Takuya Ueda, Masayoshi Saito, Hisao Ito, Hisao Osada, Yoshio Koyanagi, Koichi Ogawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a simple abdomen model of pregnant women and the evaluation of the specific absorption rate (SAR) inside the proposed model close to normal mode helical antennas (NHAs), which are replacing the portable radio terminals for business at 150 MHz. First, dielectric properties of amniotic fluid and those of fetus of rabbit, which have about the same electrical properties as human, are measured. As a result, the conductivity of amniotic fluid is 1.8 times and that of fetus is 1.3 times higher than that of adult muscle at 150 MHz. The result also suggests the modeling of pregnant women including the amniotic fluid and the fetus is necessary. Next, a simple abdomen model of pregnant women based on the measurements of magnetic resonance (MR) images of Japanese women in the late period of pregnancy is proposed. Finally, the SAR inside the proposed abdomen model close to 0.11λ and 0.18λ NHAs is calculated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. As a result, we have confirmed that the 10-g average SAR in the fetus is sufficiently less than 2 W/kg, when the output power of NHAs is 5 W, which is the maximum power of portable radio terminals in Japan.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3401-3410
Number of pages10
JournalIEICE Transactions on Communications
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Dec
Externally publishedYes


  • Amniotic fluid
  • FDTD method
  • Fetus
  • Pregnant women
  • SAR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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