Objective: Superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis is a standard surgical procedure for adult patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) and plays a role in preventing ischemic and/or hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral hyperperfusion (CHP) syndrome is a potential complication of this procedure that can result in deleterious outcomes, such as delayed intracerebral hemorrhage, but the exact threshold of the pathological increase in postoperative cerebral blood flow (CBF) is unclear. Thus, we analyzed local CBF in the acute stage after revascularization surgery for adult MMD to predict CHP syndrome under modern perioperative management. Materials and Methods: Fifty-nine consecutive adult MMD patients, aged 17-66 years old (mean 43.1), underwent STA-MCA anastomosis with indirect pial synangiosis for 65 affected hemispheres. All patients were perioperatively managed by strict blood pressure control (systolic pressure of 110-130 mm Hg) to prevent CHP syndrome. Local CBF at the site of anastomosis was quantitatively measured using the autoradiographic method by N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography 1 and 7 days after surgery, in addition to the preoperative CBF value at the corresponding area. We defined CHP phenomenon as a local CBF increase over 150% compared to the preoperative value. Then, we investigated the correlation between local hemodynamic change and the development of CHP syndrome. Results: After 65 surgeries, 5 patients developed CHP syndrome, including 2 patients with delayed intracerebral hemorrhage (3.0%), 1 with symptomatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (1.5%), and 2 with focal neurological deterioration without hemorrhage. The CBF increase ratio was significantly higher in patients with CHP syndrome (270.7%) than in patients without CHP syndrome (135.2%, p = 0.003). Based on receiver operating characteristic analysis, the cutoff value for the pathological postoperative CBF increase ratio was 184.5% for CHP syndrome (sensitivity = 83.3%, specificity = 94.2%, area under the curve [AUC] value = 0.825) and 241.3% for hemorrhagic CHP syndrome (sensitivity = 75.0%, specificity = 97.2%, AUC value = 0.742). Conclusion: Quantitative measurement of the local CBF value in the early postoperative period provides essential information to predict CHP syndrome after STA-MCA anastomosis in patients with adult MMD. The pathological threshold of hemorrhagic CHP syndrome was as high as 241.3% by the local CBF increase ratio, but 2 patients (3.0%) developed delayed intracerebral hemorrhage in this series that were managed following the intensive perioperative management protocol. Thus, we recommend routine CBF measurement in the acute stage after direct revascularization surgery for adult MMD and satisfactory blood pressure control to avoid the deleterious effects of CHP.
- Cerebral blood flow
- Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome
- Hemorrhagic conversion
- Moyamoya disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine