Angiotensin (A) II is a potent constrictor as well as growth stimulant of vascular smooth muscle cell caused by activation of AT1 receptor signal transduction systems. There are two major signal systems of AT1 receptor: one leads to an increase in cytosolic free calcium levels causing smooth muscle contraction which may result in high blood pressure, and the other leads to smooth muscle proliferation and inflammation which may result in atherosclerosis. AT1 receptor activation induces phosphinositide hydrolysis by phospholipase C and creates an inositol phosphate, which release calcium from cytosolic calcium pools. Cytosolic calcium can also be elevated by activation of calcium channel via a link between AT1 receptor and a G protein. Protein phosphorylation triggered by AT1 receptor is important for cell growth, in which tyrosine kinase, serine/threonine kinase and protein kinase C are involved. Free radicals are generated by NADH/NADPH oxidase in response to AT1 receptor activation, causing expression of genes leading to atherosclerosis. On the other hand, activation of AT2 receptor is shown to play a role of lowering blood pressure. Some phosphatases and NO/cyclic GMP would be involved in the mechanism. In renal vasculature, endothelium dependent epoxygenase products are synthesized by AT2 receptor stimulation causing vasorelaxation. In summary, AT1 receptor signals are vasopressive and evoke atherosclerosis, whereas AT2 receptor signals may possibly be vasodilatory.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine|
|Publication status||Published - 1999|