Object Some pediatric patients with middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts present with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and require shunt placement after a cyst fenestration. However, factors concerning increased ICP after fenestration followed by shunt placement have not been elucidated. This study evaluated factors that are associated with shunt placement following cyst fenestration in pediatric patients with middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts. Methods Twenty-six pediatric patients with middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts who were surgically treated at a single institution between 2004 and 2013 were retrospectively identified. The surgical indications for middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts were as follows: 1) arachnoid cysts associated with symptoms such as headache and abnormally enlarging head circumference; 2) progressively expanding arachnoid cysts; and 3) large arachnoid cysts such as Galassi Type III. A cyst fenestration was performed as a first-line treatment, and shunt placement was required if symptoms associated with increased ICP were found following fenestration. The risk factors evaluated included age, sex, presenting symptoms, the presence of head enlargement, progressive cyst expansion, and subdural hematoma/hygroma. Results Four patients (15.4%) required shunt placement after cyst fenestration. Younger age, abnormal head enlargement, and progressive cyst expansion before fenestration were significantly associated with the need for shunt placement following fenestration. Arachnoid cysts decreased in size in 22 patients (84.6%) after fenestration and/or shunt placement. The presence of symptoms was not associated with postoperative cyst size in this study. Conclusions In this study, younger age, abnormal head enlargement, and progressive cyst expansion were risk factors for shunt placement after cyst fenestration in pediatric patients with middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts. It is important to consider that cyst fenestration may not be effective because of a latent derangement of CSF circulation in patients with these risk factors.
- Middle fossa arachnoid cyst
- Shunt placement
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Clinical Neurology