Sex steroid receptors including estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), and androgen receptors (AR) have been sporadically reported in human osteosarcoma or its cell lines. Therefore, sex steroids have been considered to play some roles in human osteosarcoma, but no systematic and detailed studies regarding the correlation between the status of these receptors in sarcoma cells and clinicopathological parameters have been reported. We examined the existence of ER, PR and AR in 28 cases of osteosarcoma using immunohistochemistry. We then characterized the potential influence of sex steroids on cell proliferation of osteosarcoma cells using MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line, which expressed all of these receptors. ER-β and PR were detected in the great majority of the cases (23 and 24 cases, respectively) but ER-α and aromatase were not detected in all the cases, and AR was detected only in eight cases. There was a significant positive correlation between ER-β and Ki-67 (MIB1) labeling indexes. The absence of aromatase in tumors also suggests the relative importance of concentrations of circulating sex steroids. Proliferation of MG-63 cells was significantly stimulated by estradiol, progesterone, and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and was significantly suppressed by the addition of fulvestrant (ICI), mifepristone (RU), and hydroxiflutamide, blockers for ER, PR and AR, respectively. Sex steroids, particularly estrogen and progesterone, are considered to play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation in human osteosarcoma. In addition, these data suggest the potential for a novel endocrine therapy in osteosarcoma using clinically available inhibitors of progesterone and estrogen actions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research