It is widely known that the incidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is higher in female, whereas prognosis is poorer in male patients. However, sex differences in hemodynamic response to and long-term prognosis with PAH-targeted treatment in the modern era remain to be fully elucidated. We examined the long-term prognosis of 129 consecutive PAH patients (34 males and 95 females) diagnosed in our hospital from April 1999 to October 2014, and assessed hemodynamic changes in response to PAH-targeted therapy. Female patients had better 5-year survival compared with male patients (74.0 vs. 53.4%, P = 0.003); however, higher age quartiles in females were associated with poor outcome. Follow-up examination after medical treatment showed significant decreases in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and pulmonary arterial capacitance (PAC) in both sexes (both P < 0.05), whereas only females had a significant improvement in right ventricular end-diastolic pressure (RVEDP), right atrial pressure (RAP), cardiac index, and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) (all P < 0.05). Baseline age significantly correlated with the hemodynamic changes only in female patients; particularly, there were significant sex interactions in RVEDP and RAP (both P < 0.10). The multivariable analysis showed that SvO2 at baseline and mPAP and SvO2 at follow-up were significant prognostic factors in males, whereas the changes in mPAP, PVR, and PAC and use of endothelin-receptor antagonist in females. These results indicate that female PAH patients have better long-term prognosis than males, for which better improvements of right ventricular functions and hemodynamics may be involved.
- Pulmonary arterial hypertension
- Pulmonary hemodynamics
- Right ventricular function
- Sex difference
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine