The serum protein binding of lomefloxacin (LFLX), a new quinolone (pyridonecarboxylic acid), and its related analogues was studied by an ultrafiltration technique. The extent of binding of quinolones was independent of the concentration of quinolones below 100 μg/mL in rat serum; but, above this concentration, the binding decreased with increased drug concentration in the case of nalidixic acid and analogue 3. The extent of binding in rat serum differed widely among the quinolones examined [i.e., from 15% (norfloxacin) to 84% (nalidixic acid) at concentrations of 0.4—10.0 μg/mL]. Lomefloxacin was bound to serum proteins to the extent of 28.1, 20.1, and 20.6% in the sera of rats, dogs, and humans, respectively. The binding of nalidixic acid with rat serum albumin, which was very similar to that in rat serum, was concentration dependent. Some quinolone derivatives with a piperazinyl group or a relatively large‐sized substituent at the 7‐position exhibited a percentage unbound of ∼70—80%, while some derivatives with small‐sized substituents gave a low percentage unbound of 20—30%. This suggests that there is a steric effect of the substituents at the 7‐position of quinolones on their binding characteristics with serum proteins. The results of the present study indicate that quinolones bind mainly with albumin among serum proteins and that the remarkable difference of the extent of binding of quinolone analogues is related to the size of the substituent at the 7‐position of the molecule, possibly due to its steric effect.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science