The polygenic background of selectively bred diabetes models mimics the etiology of type 2 diabetes. So far, three different rodent models (Goto-Kakizaki rats, Nagoya-Shibata-Yasuda mice, and Oikawa-Nagao mice) have been established in the diabetes research field by continuous selective breeding for glucose tolerance from outbred rodent stocks. The origin of hyperglycemia in these rodents is mainly insulin secretion deficiency from the pancreatic β-cells and mild insulin resistance in insulin target organs. In this chapter, we summarize backgrounds and phenotypes of these rodent models to highlight their importance in diabetes research. Then, we introduce experimental methodologies to evaluate β-cell exocytosis as a putative common defect observed in these rodent models.