Selective brain to blood efflux transport of para-aminohippuric acid across the blood-brain barrier: In vivo evidence by use of the brain efflux index method

Atsuyuki Kakee, Tetsuya Terasaki, Yuichi Sugiyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

56 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Efflux transport of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) across the blood- brain barrier (BBB) has been demonstrated by use of the brain efflux index (BEI) method. PAH was eliminated from the ipsilateral cerebrum extensively with an apparent efflux rate constant of 0.0587 (min-1) after microinjection into a cerebral cortex region termed Par2. This efflux transport showed a saturation with the Michaelis constant of approximately 400 μM. No more than 3% dose of PAH and carboxyl-inulin, used as a reference compound showing limited permeability at the BBB were found in the contralateral cerebrum, cerebellum or cerebrospinal fluid up to 20 min after administration. Under saturated conditions for carrier-mediated efflux of PAH via the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, the BEI-value of PAH did not change significantly, which suggested that blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier was not responsible for the elimination of PAH from the brain after microinjection. No significant metabolism of PAH was demonstrated in the brain for at least 20 min after microinjection, and most of the radioactivity in the ipsilateral and contralateral carotid veins was as the intact form. With the distribution volume of PAH. 0.800 ml/g brain, obtained from the brain slice uptake experiment, the apparent efflux clearance was calculated as 46.9 μl/min/g brain. In addition, the influx clearance of PAH across the BBB determined by the in vivo brain uptake index method was much smaller than the efflux clearance, which demonstrates that BBB Transports PAH selectively from the brain to the circulating blood.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1018-1025
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Volume283
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1997 Dec 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology

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