Seeding the second star-II. CEMP star formation enriched from faint supernovae

Gen Chiaki, John H. Wise, Stefania Marassi, Raffaella Schneider, Marco Limongi, Alessandro Chieffi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars are the living fossils holding records of chemical enrichment from early generations of stars. In this work, we perform a set of numerical simulations of the enrichment from a supernova (SN) of a first generation of metal-free (Pop III) star and the gravitational collapse of the enriched cloud, considering all relevant cooling/heating processes and chemical reactions as well as the growth of dust grains. We adopt faint SN models for the first time with progenitor masses MPopIII = 13-80 M⊙, which yield C-enhanced abundance patterns ([C/Fe] = 4.57-4.75) through mixing and fallback of innermost layers of the ejecta. This model also considers the formation and destruction of dust grains. We find that the metals ejected by the SN can be partly re-accreted by the same dark matter minihalo, and carbon abundance of the enriched cloud A(C) = 3.80-5.06 is lower than the abundance range of observed CEMP stars (A(C) ≳ 6) because the mass of the metals ejected by faint SNe is smaller than normal core-collapse SNe due to extensive fallback. We also find that cloud fragmentation is induced by gas cooling from carbonaceous grains for MPop III = 13 M⊙ even with the lowest iron abundance [Fe/H] ∼-9. This leads to the formation of low-mass stars, and these 'giga metal-poor' stars can survive until the present-day Universe and may be found by future observations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3149-3165
Number of pages17
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Sep 1
Externally publishedYes


  • ISM: Abundances
  • galaxies: Evolution
  • stars: Formation
  • stars: Low-mass
  • stars: Population II
  • stars: Population III

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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