We describe a 56-year-old woman with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and a past history of stroke, who underwent nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (NST) with conditioning consisting of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide. The regimen related toxicity was minimal and patient did not require transfusions of any blood products nor did she have any infections after the NST Since mixed chimerism was observed in both lymphocytes (70% were donor type) and granulocytes (none were donor type) at 56 days after NST, donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) was performed on day 68 and then immunosuppressant therapy was discontinued. DLI resulted in graft versus leukemia (GVL) effect, causing pancytopenia and bone marrow aplasia. A second hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was performed without conditioning on day 157, and complete donor type hematopoiesis and molecular remission of CML were achieved. Although engraftment of donor hematopoietic stem cells was not obtained after the first transplantation, donor lymphocytes were engrafted by nonmyeloablative conditioning and immunosuppression. That is, the same result might have been achieved even if the patient had received transfusion of only donor lymphocyte subsets in the first step. Based on this case report, a potential cell therapy is proposed composed of the preceding donor lymphocyte infusion alone, which induces GVL effects, and subsequent donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||[Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology|
|Publication status||Published - 2005 Dec|
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