Rice cultivar responses to elevated CO2 at two free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) sites in Japan

Toshihiro Hasegawa, Hidemitsu Sakai, Takeshi Tokida, Hirofumi Nakamura, Chunwu Zhu, Yasuhiro Usui, Mayumi Yoshimoto, Minehiko Fukuoka, Hitomi Wakatsuki, Nobuko Katayanagi, Toshinori Matsunami, Yoshihiro Kaneta, Takashi Sato, Fumiaki Takakai, Ryoji Sameshima, Masumi Okada, Tadahiko Mae, Amane Makino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

179 Citations (Scopus)


There is some evidence that rice cultivars respond differently to elevated CO2 concentrations ([CO2]), but [CO2]×cultivar interaction has never been tested under open-field conditions across different sites. Here, we report on trials conducted at free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facilities at two sites in Japan, Shizukuishi (2007 and 2008) and Tsukuba (2010). The average growing-season air temperature was more than 5°C warmer at Tsukuba than at Shizukuishi. For four cultivars tested at both sites, the [CO2]×cultivar interaction was significant for brown rice yield, but there was no significant interaction with site-year. Higher-yielding cultivars with a large sink size showed a greater [CO2] response. The Tsukuba FACE experiment, which included eight cultivars, revealed a wider range of yield enhancement (3-36%) than the multi-site experiment. All of the tested yield components contributed to this enhancement, but there was a highly significant [CO2]×cultivar interaction for percentage of ripened spikelets. These results suggest that a large sink is a prerequisite for higher productivity under elevated [CO2], but that improving carbon allocation by increasing grain setting may also be a practical way of increasing the yield response to elevated [CO2].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-159
Number of pages12
JournalFunctional Plant Biology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science


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