TY - JOUR

T1 - Reverse annealing for the fully connected p -spin model

AU - Ohkuwa, Masaki

AU - Nishimori, Hidetoshi

AU - Lidar, Daniel A.

N1 - Funding Information:
Part of the work was funded by the JSPS KAKENHI Grant No. 26287086. The research is based upon work partially supported by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), via the US Army Research Office Contract No. W911NF-17-C-0050. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government. The US Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright annotation thereon.
Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 American Physical Society.

PY - 2018/8/13

Y1 - 2018/8/13

N2 - Reverse annealing is a variant of quantum annealing that starts from a given classical configuration of spins (qubits). In contrast to the conventional formulation, where one starts from a uniform superposition of all possible states (classical configurations), quantum fluctuations are first increased and only then decreased. One then reads out the state as a proposed solution to the given combinatorial optimization problem. We formulate a mean-field theory of reverse annealing using the fully connected ferromagnetic p-spin model, with and without random longitudinal fields, and analyze it in order to understand how and when reverse annealing is effective at solving this problem. We find that the difficulty arising from the existence of a first-order quantum phase transition, which leads to an exponentially long computation time in conventional quantum annealing, is circumvented in the context of this particular problem by reverse annealing if the proximity of the initial state to the (known) solution exceeds a threshold. Even when a first-order transition is unavoidable, the difficulty is mitigated due to a smaller jump in the order parameter at a first-order transition, which implies a larger rate of quantum tunneling. Reverse annealing has not been studied analytically before, and this study paves the way toward a systematic understanding of this relatively unexplored protocol in a broader context.

AB - Reverse annealing is a variant of quantum annealing that starts from a given classical configuration of spins (qubits). In contrast to the conventional formulation, where one starts from a uniform superposition of all possible states (classical configurations), quantum fluctuations are first increased and only then decreased. One then reads out the state as a proposed solution to the given combinatorial optimization problem. We formulate a mean-field theory of reverse annealing using the fully connected ferromagnetic p-spin model, with and without random longitudinal fields, and analyze it in order to understand how and when reverse annealing is effective at solving this problem. We find that the difficulty arising from the existence of a first-order quantum phase transition, which leads to an exponentially long computation time in conventional quantum annealing, is circumvented in the context of this particular problem by reverse annealing if the proximity of the initial state to the (known) solution exceeds a threshold. Even when a first-order transition is unavoidable, the difficulty is mitigated due to a smaller jump in the order parameter at a first-order transition, which implies a larger rate of quantum tunneling. Reverse annealing has not been studied analytically before, and this study paves the way toward a systematic understanding of this relatively unexplored protocol in a broader context.

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U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevA.98.022314

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevA.98.022314

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85050983172

VL - 98

JO - Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics

JF - Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics

SN - 1050-2947

IS - 2

M1 - 022314

ER -