Responses of the chloroplast glyoxalase system to high CO2 concentrations

Ginga Shimakawa, Kentaro Ifuku, Yuji Suzuki, Amane Makino, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Hiroshi Fukayama, Ryutaro Morita, Katsuhiko Sakamoto, Akiko Nishi, Chikahiro Miyake

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    6 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Sugar metabolism pathways such as photosynthesis produce dicarbonyls, e.g. methylglyoxal (MG), which can cause cellular damage. The glyoxalase (GLX) system comprises two enzymes GLX1 and GLX2, and detoxifies MG; however, this system is poorly understood in the chloroplast, compared with the cytosol. In the present study, we determined GLX1 and GLX2 activities in spinach chloroplasts, which constituted 40% and 10%, respectively, of the total leaf glyoxalase activity. In Arabidopsis thaliana, five GFP-fusion GLXs were present in the chloroplasts. Under high CO2 concentrations, where increased photosynthesis promotes the MG production, GLX1 and GLX2 activities in A. thaliana increased and the expression of AtGLX1-2 and AtGLX2-5 was enhanced. On the basis of these findings and the phylogeny of GLX in oxygenic phototrophs, we propose that the GLX system scavenges MG produced in chloroplasts during photosynthesis.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2072-2083
    Number of pages12
    JournalBioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry
    Volume82
    Issue number12
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2018

    Keywords

    • Dicarbonyls
    • Glyoxalase system
    • High [CO]
    • Methylglyoxal
    • Photosynthesis

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Biotechnology
    • Analytical Chemistry
    • Biochemistry
    • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • Molecular Biology
    • Organic Chemistry

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