Research and simulation on self-adaptive digital audio watermarking

Hui Qin Wang, Ryouichi Nishimura, Yoiti Suzuki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


A fuzzy self-adaptive digital audio watermarking based on time-spread echo hiding algorithm was proposed. The single echo kernel of audio signal is spread by pseudo noise (PN) sequence and taken as watermark signal. Therefore, the algorithm achieves higher robustness and secrecy merits by combining the properties of good robustness of echo hiding and high secrecy of spread-spectrum techniques. A two dimension fuzzy controller was designed based on the Psychoacoustics models. The fuzzy inference algorithm ensures that the embedded watermark in the original audio is self-adaptive. The ABX subjective test and simulation experiment results show that the watermarks are imperceptible and robust against commonly used audio signal processing methods such as lowpass filter, noise, and resample procession etc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)461-464
Number of pages4
JournalXitong Fangzhen Xuebao / Journal of System Simulation
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Feb 1


  • Audio
  • Digital watermarking
  • Fuzzy
  • Human audio system (HAS)
  • Self-adaptive

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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