The path from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to functional B lymphocytes has long been appreciated as a basic model of differentiation, but much clinically relevant information has also been obtained. It is now possible to conduct single cell studies with increasingly high resolution, revealing that individual stem and progenitor cells differ from each other with respect to differentiation potential and fates. B lymphopoiesis is now seen as a gradual and unsynchronized process where progenitors eventually become B lineage restricted. Major milestones have been identified, but a precise sequence need not be followed and oscillation between states is possible. It is not yet clear if this versatility has survival value, but information is accumulating about infections and age-related changes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy