Remediation of cadmium contamination in paddy soils by washing with chemicals: Selection of washing chemicals

Tomoyuki Makino, Kazuo Sugahara, Yasuhiro Sakurai, Hiroyuki Takano, Takashi Kamiya, Kouta Sasaki, Tadashi Itou, Naoki Sekiya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

102 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The efficiencies of neutral salts, strong acids, and chelates were tested for extracting cadmium (Cd) from three paddy soils. The higher the selectivity of the cations of the added neutral salts toward soil adsorption sites, the lower the pH in the extracts and the more soil Cd could be extracted. In addition, soil carbon and nitrogen contents and mineral composition were closely associated with the amount of Cd extracted. Calcium chloride and iron(III) chloride were selected as wash chemicals to restore Cd-contaminated paddy soils in situ. Washing with calcium chloride led to the formation of Cd chloride complexes, enhancing Cd extraction from the soils. The washing also substantially decreased soil levels of exchangeable and acid-soluble Cd, which are the major forms of bioavailable Cd for rice (Oryza sativa L.). The optimum conditions for in situ soil washing were also determined for calcium chloride.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2-10
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Volume144
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Nov 1
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cadmium
  • Chemical speciation
  • Paddy soil
  • Rice
  • Soil washing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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