Relationship between radar cross section and optical magnitude based on radar and optical simultaneous observations of faint meteors

Ryou Ohsawa, Akira Hirota, Kohei Morita, Shinsuke Abe, Daniel Kastinen, Johan Kero, Csilla Szasz, Yasunori Fujiwara, Takuji Nakamura, Koji Nishimura, Shigeyuki Sako, Jun ichi Watanabe, Tsutomu Aoki, Noriaki Arima, Ko Arimatsu, Mamoru Doi, Makoto Ichiki, Shiro Ikeda, Yoshifusa Ita, Toshihiro KasugaNaoto Kobayashi, Mitsuru Kokubo, Masahiro Konishi, Hiroyuki Maehara, Takashi Miyata, Yuki Mori, Mikio Morii, Tomoki Morokuma, Kentaro Motohara, Yoshikazu Nakada, Shin ichiro Okumura, Yuki Sarugaku, Mikiya Sato, Toshikazu Shigeyama, Takao Soyano, Hidenori Takahashi, Masaomi Tanaka, Ken'ichi Tarusawa, Nozomu Tominaga, Seitaro Urakawa, Fumihiko Usui, Takuya Yamashita, Makoto Yoshikawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Radar and optical simultaneous observations of meteors are important to understand the size distribution of the interplanetary dust. However, faint meteors detected by high power large aperture radar observations, which are typically as faint as 10 mag. In optical, have not been detected until recently in optical observations, mainly due to insufficient sensitivity of the optical observations. In this paper, two radar and optical simultaneous observations were organized. The first observation was carried out in 2009–2010 using Middle and Upper Atmosphere Radar (MU radar) and an image-intensified CCD camera. The second observation was carried out in 2018 using the MU radar and a mosaic CMOS camera, Tomo-e Gozen, mounted on the 1.05-m Kiso Schmidt Telescope. In total, 331 simultaneous meteors were detected. The relationship between radar cross sections and optical V-band magnitudes was well approximated by a linear function. A transformation function from the radar cross section to the V-band magnitude was derived for sporadic meteors. The transformation function was applied to about 150,000 meteors detected by the MU radar in 2009–2015, large part of which are sporadic, and a luminosity function was derived in the magnitude range of −1.5–9.5 mag. The luminosity function was well approximated by a single power-law function with the population index of r=3.52±0.12. The present observation indicates that the MU radar has capability to detect interplanetary dust of 10−5–100g in mass as meteors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105011
JournalPlanetary and Space Science
Volume194
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Dec

Keywords

  • Interplanetary medium
  • Meteoroids
  • meteors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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