Relapse activity in the chronic phase of anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease

Tetsuya Akaishi, Tatsuro Misu, Kazuo Fujihara, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Yoshiki Takai, Shuhei Nishiyama, Kimihiko Kaneko, Juichi Fujimori, Tadashi Ishii, Masashi Aoki, Ichiro Nakashima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: The patterns of relapse and relapse-prevention strategies for anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) are not completely investigated. We compared the patterns of relapse in later stages of MOGAD with those of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab)-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Methods: In this observational, comparative cohort study, 66 patients with MOGAD and 90 with AQP4-Ab-positive NMOSD were enrolled. We compared the patterns of relapse and annualized relapse rates (ARRs) in the first 10 years from disease onset, stratified by relapse-prevention treatments. Results: Approximately 50% of the patients with MOGAD experienced relapses in the first 10 years. Among those not undergoing relapse-prevention treatments, ARRs in the first 5 years were slightly lower in MOGAD patients than in AQP4-Ab-positive NMOSD patients (MOGAD vs. AQP4-Ab NMOSD: 0.19 vs. 0.30; p = 0.0753). After 5 years, the ARR decreased in MOGAD patients (MOGAD vs. AQP4-Ab NMOSD: 0.05 vs. 0.34; p = 0.0001), with a 72% reduction from the first 5 years (p = 0.0090). Eight (61.5%) of the 13 MOGAD patients with more than 10-year follow-up from disease onset showed relapse 10 years after onset. Clustering in the timing and phenotype of attacks was observed in both disease patients. The effectiveness of long-term low-dose oral PSL for relapse prevention in patients with MOGAD has not been determined. Conclusions: The relapse risk in patients with MOGAD is generally lower than that in patients with AQP4-Ab-positive NMOSD, especially 5 years after onset. Meanwhile, relapses later than 10 years from onset are not rare in both diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3136-3146
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of neurology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jun


  • Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody
  • MOG-antibody-associated disease (MOGAD)
  • Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD)
  • Relapse prevention
  • Relapse-free survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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