The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chronic exercise training and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression in fat and skeletal muscle in fructose-fed spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR were fed a fructose-rich diet over 16 weeks of either exercise training (Ex group: 20 m/min, 0% grade, 60 min/day, 5 days/week), ACE inhibitor administration (TM group: temocapril, 10mg/kg/day), or a combination of both treatments (TM+Ex group). The systolic blood pressure was reduced exclusively in the temocapril-treated groups. Serum leptin level was positively correlated with the ratio of epididymal fat weight to body weight (p<0.001). Exercise training significantly upregulated the PPARγ expression in all tissues, which was attenuated by temocapril. PPARγ expression was significantly upregulated in skeletal muscles in the Ex group, and temocapril administration attenuated this effect in the Ex+TM group. The level of PPARγ protein was significantly higher in the extensor digitorum longus muscle than in the soleus muscle. Both TM and Ex prevented the fructose diet-induced transitions of fiber type. These data suggested that PPARγ expression is tissue-specific, and that alterations in PPARγ expression in the skeletal muscle induced by either or both treatments may have contributed to reducing the fat mass via the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. Changes in muscle morphology were independent of PPARγ expression, and the higher proportion of type I fiber might also explain some of the beneficial impact of exercise and ACE inhibition on energy metabolism.
- Epididymal fat
- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ
- Skeletal muscle
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine