Reciprocal transmittances and reflectances: An elementary proof

Masanobu Iwanaga, A. S. Vengurlekar, Takafumi Hatano, Teruya Ishihara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


We present an elementary proof concerning reciprocal transmittances and reflectances. The proof is direct, simple, and valid for the diverse objects that can be absorptive and induce diffraction and scattering, as long as the objects respond linearly and locally to electromagnetic waves. The proof enables students who understand the basics of classical electromagnetics to grasp the physical basis of reciprocal optical responses. We show an example to demonstrate reciprocal response numerically and experimentally.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)899-902
Number of pages4
JournalAmerican Journal of Physics
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Oct 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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