Recent progress in phthalocyanine chemistry: Synthesis and characterization

Nagao Kobayashi, Takamitsu Fukuda

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

14 Citations (Scopus)


Phthalocyanine (Pc) was first synthesized in 1907, so the first centenary of Pc research is fast approaching. Because the heteroaromatic Pc ligand has a strong blue color and is chemically stable, Pc complexes have been used extensively in pigments and dyestuffs for more than 70 years. Pcs have also been used as catalysts for the removal of sulfur from crude oil; as charge-generation materials in xerography; in optical read/write discs; as photodynamic reagents for cancer therapy; in deodorants, germicides, and anti-bacterial reagents; and as growth promoting and retarding agents of plants. Other active fields of Pc-related research include applications in or as chemical sensors, electrochromism, conductors, semiconductors, and photovoltaic elements for electricity generation, one dimensional metals, non-linear optics, electrocatalysis, liquid crystals, Langmuir-Blodgett films, and electrophotography. Although most research results have been published as patents, academic research has become very intensive over the past 20 years.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFunctional Dyes
Number of pages45
ISBN (Electronic)9780444521767
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)


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