Real-time visualization and characterization of liposomal delivery into the monkey brain by magnetic resonance imaging

Michal T. Krauze, Tracy R. McKnight, Yoji Yamashita, John Bringas, Charles O. Noble, Ryuta Saito, Karsten Geletneky, John Forsayeth, Mitchel S. Berger, Pamela Jackson, John W. Park, Krystof S. Bankiewicz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

81 Citations (Scopus)


Liposomes loaded with Gadoteridol, in combination with convection-enhanced delivery (CED), offer an excellent option to monitor CNS delivery of therapeutic compounds with MRI. In previous studies, we investigated possible clinical applications of liposomes to the treatment of brain tumors. In this study, up to 700 μl of Gadoteridol/rhodamine-loaded liposomes were distributed in putamen, corona radiata and brainstem of non-human primates. Distribution was monitored by real-time MRI throughout infusion procedures and allowed accurate calculation of volume of distribution within anatomical structures. We found that different regions of the brain gave various volumes of distribution when infused with the same volume of liposome. Based on these findings, distinct distribution pathways within infused structures can be predicted. This work underlines the importance of monitoring drug delivery to CNS and enables accurate delivery of drug-loaded liposomes to specific brain regions with a standard MRI procedure. Findings presented in this manuscript may allow for modeling of parameters used for direct delivery of therapeutics into various regions of the brain.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20-26
Number of pages7
JournalBrain Research Protocols
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Dec 1
Externally publishedYes


  • CNS
  • Convection-enhanced delivery
  • Distribution
  • Liposome
  • MRI
  • Primate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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