The light-driven splitting of water to oxygen (O2) is catalyzed by a protein-bound tetra-manganese penta-oxygen calcium (Mn4O5Ca) cluster in Photosystem II. In the current study, we used a large-scale integration (LSI)-based amperometric sensor array system, designated Bio-LSI, to perform two-dimensional imaging of light-induced O2 evolution from spinach leaves. The employed Bio-LSI chip consists of 400 sensor electrodes with a pitch of 250 μm for fast electrochemical imaging. Spinach leaves were illuminated to varying intensities of white light (400–700 nm) which induced oxygen evolution and subsequent electrochemical images were collected using the Bio-LSI chip. Bio-LSI images clearly showed the dose-dependent effects of the light-induced oxygen release from spinach leaves which was then significantly suppressed in the presence of urea-type herbicide 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)−1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU). Our results clearly suggest that light-induced oxygen evolution can be monitored using the chip and suggesting that the Bio-LSI is a promising tool for real-time imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe electrochemical imaging of light-induced O2 evolution using LSI-based amperometric sensors in plants.
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