In man, CYP2C19, a liver enzyme, plays an important role in the metabolism of several drugs. Mutation of the CYP2C19 gene results in a poor metaboliser phenotype. S-Mephenytoin hydroxylation genetic polymorphism is due to two mutations of the CYP2C19 gene, namely CYP2C19*2, located in exon 5, and CYP2C19*3, located in exon 4. CYP2C18 is also polymorphically expressed. The mutant alleles of this enzyme are CYP2C18ml, located in exon 2 and CYP2C18m2, located in the 5'-flanking region. We have developed an allele-specific TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with which to detect CYP2C18 mutant alleles. This assay combines hybridization of the TaqMan probe and allele-specific amplification primers to the target DNA. The TaqMan probe is labelled with 6-carboxyfluorescein at the 5' end and 6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine together with a phosphate at the 3' end. Genotypes are separated according to the different threshold cycles of the wild type and mutant primers. We applied this procedure to DNA extracted from the blood or saliva of 144 healthy Japanese volunteers. The wt/wt, wt/m1, wt/m2, m1/m1, m1/m2 and m2/m2 genotypes of the CYP2C18 alleles detected by the assay were consistent with the results obtained from restriction enzyme cleavage. In accordance with a previous report, the genotypes of CYP2C18m1 and CYP2C18m2 coincided with those of CYP2C19*3 and CYP2C19*2, respectively. Therefore, detection of CYP2C18 mutant alleles also allows that of CYP2C19 mutant alleles. Among 19 poor metabolisers, eight showed the homozygous CYP2C19*2/CYP2C19*2, two the homozygous CYP2C19*3/CYP2C19*3 and nine the compound heterozygous CYP2C19*2/CYP2C19*3 genotype. We found the allele-specific TaqMan PCR assay rapid, simple and cost-effective, as well as suitable for high-throughput applications in a routine laboratory. This assay allows the fast and reliable detection of inherited disorders that might influence diagnosis and treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science