Raman spectroscopy of boron-doped single-layer graphene

Yoong Ahm Kim, Kazunori Fujisawa, Hiroyuki Muramatsu, Takuya Hayashi, Morinobu Endo, Toshihiko Fujimori, Katsumi Kaneko, Mauricio Terrones, Jan Behrends, Axel Eckmann, Cinzia Casiraghi, Kostya S. Novoselov, Riichiro Saito, Mildred S. Dresselhaus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

192 Citations (Scopus)


The introduction of foreign atoms, such as nitrogen, into the hexagonal network of an sp 2-hybridized carbon atom monolayer has been demonstrated and constitutes an effective tool for tailoring the intrinsic properties of graphene. Here, we report that boron atoms can be efficiently substituted for carbon in graphene. Single-layer graphene substitutionally doped with boron was prepared by the mechanical exfoliation of boron-doped graphite. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated that the amount of substitutional boron in graphite was ∼0.22 atom %. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the boron atoms were spaced 4.76 nm apart in single-layer graphene. The 7-fold higher intensity of the D-band when compared to the G-band was explained by the elastically scattered photoexcited electrons by boron atoms before emitting a phonon. The frequency of the G-band in single-layer substitutionally boron-doped graphene was unchanged, which could be explained by the p-type boron doping (stiffening) counteracting the tensile strain effect of the larger carbon-boron bond length (softening). Boron-doped graphene appears to be a useful tool for engineering the physical and chemical properties of graphene.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6293-6300
Number of pages8
JournalACS Nano
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jul 24


  • Raman
  • boron
  • grapheme
  • substitution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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