Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) accounts for 20%-25% of breast cancers detected at screening mammography. The lesions are diverse and commonly are classified on the basis of their mammographic features and histologic characteristics such as nuclear grade and presence or absence of necrosis. The most common mammographic finding in DCIS is microcalcifications, but a low-grade lesion without necrosis is less likely to manifest with calcifications than either an intermediate- or a high-grade lesion. Other mammographic findings might include a mass or architectural distortion. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has higher sensitivity than mammography for the detection of DCIS and greater accuracy for depicting the extent of disease. The MR imaging appearance of DCIS depends primarily on the presence and extent of abnormal periductal or stromal vascularity. Nonmasslike enhancement, the most common MR imaging finding, is often seen in association with clumped internal enhancement. The enhancement kinetics in dynamic MR studies vary, and no kinetic pattern is pathognomonic of a particular nuclear grade of DCIS. However, the kinetic pattern at delayed imaging does appear to be correlated with the mammographic findings: Mass lesions show strong washout; fine pleomorphic, fine linear, and fine linear-branching calcifications demonstrate a plateau enhancement pattern; and amorphous calcifications exhibit persistent enhancement. Multidetector computed tomography might be a useful adjunct to MR imaging for preoperative mapping.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging