Quantifying the evidence for biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning and services

Patricia Balvanera, Andrea B. Pfisterer, Nina Buchmann, Jing Shen He, Tohru Nakashizuka, David Raffaelli, Bernhard Schmid

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    1656 Citations (Scopus)


    Concern is growing about the consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning, for the provision of ecosystem services, and for human well being. Experimental evidence for a relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem process rates is compelling, but the issue remains contentious. Here, we present the first rigorous quantitative assessment of this relationship through meta-analysis of experimental work spanning 50 years to June 2004. We analysed 446 measures of biodiversity effects (252 in grasslands), 319 of which involved primary producer manipulations or measurements. Our analyses show that: biodiversity effects are weaker if biodiversity manipulations are less well controlled; effects of biodiversity change on processes are weaker at the ecosystem compared with the community level and are negative at the population level; productivity-related effects decline with increasing number of trophic links between those elements manipulated and those measured; biodiversity effects on stability measures ('insurance' effects) are not stronger than biodiversity effects on performance measures. For those ecosystem services which could be assessed here, there is clear evidence that biodiversity has positive effects on most. Whilst such patterns should be further confirmed, a precautionary approach to biodiversity management would seem prudent in the meantime.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1146-1156
    Number of pages11
    JournalEcology Letters
    Issue number10
    Publication statusPublished - 2006 Oct


    • Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning
    • Diversity manipulations
    • Ecosystem property
    • Ecosystem services
    • Ecosystem type
    • Experimental design
    • Meta-analysis
    • Stability
    • Trophic level

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics


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