Objectives: To investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Japanese men with localized prostate cancer who underwent prostate brachytherapy (BT) or retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP). Methods: A total of 70 patients who underwent BT and 67 who underwent RRP were enrolled in our study. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form (SF-36), University of California, Los Angeles, Prostate Cancer Index, and the International Prostate Symptom Score were administered before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. No patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. Results: The RRP group reported significantly lower scores in several domains of the SF-36 at 1 month (P <0.05), but these domains returned to baseline within 6 months. The BT patients reported no significant changes in any of the general HRQOL domains throughout the follow-up period. The RRP group reported a lower posttreatment urinary function score, which reflected leakage, than the BT group. However, the BT patients experienced a significantly delayed recovery of the urinary bother score. The data from the International Prostate Symptom Score showed adverse effects from BT on voiding symptoms for the initial 6 months after treatment. No differences were found in bowel symptoms. RRP was associated with worse sexual function than BT, although nerve-sparing surgery minimized the difference. Conclusions: The results of this study have indicated that BT and RRP have meaningfully different profiles in the recovery of general QOL. The differences in the recovery of disease-specific HRQOL were pronounced during the first 12 months after treatment.
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