We previously reported that the ethanol extract from polished rice suppresses inflammation and the formation of aberrant crypt foci in the mouse colon and particularly focused on the plant sphingolipid glucosylceramide (GlcCer). Here, we investigated the effects of rice lipid fractions and GlcCer on differentiated Caco-2 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in particular, we evaluated the mechanism of action of GlcCer using related substances and metabolic enzyme inhibitors. Rice-derived polar lipids suppressed the LPS-induced reduction in the number of cells. The polar lipids with higher GlcCer content exerted a better effect than the other fractions. GlcCer-related substances reversed the LPS-induced reduction in the number of cells, and GlcCer-metabolic inhibitors, including a sphingosine kinase inhibitor, suppressed the beneficial effects of GlcCer-related substances. These results suggest that GlcCer is a rice component with intestinal protection. Secondly, GlcCer is metabolized during inflammation and protects intestinal cells by maintaining the sphingolipid levels in cells and producing sphingoid base-1-phosphate.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)