Propagation characteristics of swell incoming from the deep ocean into the seas East of China

Ruo Chao Zhang, Hiroshi Kawamura, Yoshiaki Toba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


By using a numerical model with a ray-tracing technique, characteristics of the propagation of swell coming into the shallow seas east of China from the southeast deep ocean, have been investigated. Fundamental points are: (1) the bottom topography, which is shallower in the west part, deflects the incoming swell toward the west, with the consequence that few swells with wavelengths greater than 300 m in deep sea reach the north coast of the Yellow Sea; (2) the swell tends to be focused on the south coast of the Shandong Peninsula by the effect of topography; (3) the swell from the deep ocean scarcely reaches the Bohai Sea; (4) the Okinawa Island blocks a significant part of the swell incoming from the deep ocean; (5) the shallow bank east of the coast near Shanghai tends to focus the swell on the coast around 33°N. As a time-dependent problem, we have simulated the propagation of swell which was generated by a model typhoon moving to the northeast over the deep ocean along the Ryukyu and Nansei Islands. The complicated nature of the arrival of swell at the coast of China can be explained well by the propagation characteristics described above.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)441-455
Number of pages15
JournalProgress in Oceanography
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 1988
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science
  • Geology


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