Prompt gamma detection for range verification in proton therapy

Shunsuke Kurosawa, Hidetoshi Kubo, Kazuki Ueno, Shigeto Kabuki, Satoru Iwaki, Michiaki Takahashi, Kojiro Taniue, Naoki Higashi, Kentaro Miuchi, Toru Tanimori, Dogyun Kim, Jongwon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

82 Citations (Scopus)


It is an on-going challenge to verify the proton range in situ during proton therapy. Since the protons stop in target tissue, measurement of gamma-rays emitted either promptly from nuclear de-excitation or in pair from positron annihilation is the feasible method to monitor the proton range in-vivo. Using the technique of gamma collimation, we empirically demonstrated that the proton range and prompt gamma distribution are well correlated in the therapy energy range, and that measuring prompt gammas is a viable method for the clinical application. However, this collimation technique appears not to be applicable to passively scattered proton beams. The device chosen for gamma imaging in 2D is an electron tracking Compton camera, which images single-emission photons employing a gas chamber to induce Compton scattering. Images of prompt gammas were attained at the proton beam energy of 140 MeV. Measurements showed that gamma image in the energy range of 800-2000 keV provides a better match with the proton range compared to the image by lower energy gammas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)364-368
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent Applied Physics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Mar
Externally publishedYes


  • Compton camera
  • Dose falloff
  • Electron tracking
  • Prompt gamma
  • Proton therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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