Patients with pancreatic cancer have a poor prognosis, therefore identifying particular tumor characteristics associated with prognosis is important. This study aims to investigate the utility of radiomics with machine learning using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET in patients with pancreatic cancer. We enrolled 161 patients with pancreatic cancer underwent pretreatment FDG-PET/CT. The area of the primary tumor was semi-automatically contoured with a threshold of 40% of the maximum standardized uptake value, and 42 PET features were extracted. To identify relevant PET parameters for predicting 1-year survival, Gini index was measured using random forest (RF) classifier. Twenty-three patients were censored within 1 year of follow-up, and the remaining 138 patients were used for the analysis. Among the PET parameters, 10 features showed statistical significance for predicting overall survival. Multivariate analysis using Cox HR regression revealed gray-level zone length matrix (GLZLM) gray-level non-uniformity (GLNU) as the only PET parameter showing statistical significance. In RF model, GLZLM GLNU was the most relevant factor for predicting 1-year survival, followed by total lesion glycolysis (TLG). The combination of GLZLM GLNU and TLG stratified patients into three groups according to risk of poor prognosis. Radiomics with machine learning using FDG-PET in patients with pancreatic cancer provided useful prognostic information.
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