Aqueous humor (AH) is one of the body fluids in the eye, which is known to be related with various ocular diseases, but the complete RNAs characteristic of the AH in patients is not yet known. The aim of this study was, with a microarray analysis, to reveal the disease-related extracellular miRNAs profiles in individual patients AH. 100 μl of AH was collected by anterior chamber paracentesis from 10 glaucoma, 5 cataract, and 5 epiretinal membrane patients. The extracted total RNAs were shorter than 200 nt, and their amount was 5.27 ± 0.41 ng in average. Among 530.5 ± 44.6 miRNA types detected in each sample with a microarray detectable 2019 types of matured miRNAs, 172 miRNAs were detected in all 10 glaucoma or control patients. From the glaucoma group, 11 significantly up-regulated and 18 significantly down-regulated miRNAs (P < 0.05 for both) were found to have areas under the curve better than 0.74 in a receiver operating characteristic analysis. They also formed a cluster composed only of glaucoma patients in a hierarchal cluster analysis. AH had a possibility of becoming a source of miRNA that can serve as a biomarker and a therapeutic target.
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