Confocal probes are widely employed in many industrial fields due to the depth-sectioning effect. The author’s group has also proposed a chromatic confocal probe employing a mode-locked femtosecond laser source which can realize an axial resolution of 30 nm and a measurement range of 40 µm. Efforts have also been made to improve the thermal stability of the developed femtosecond laser chromatic confocal probe so that the probe can be applied for long-term displacement measurement or surface profile measurement. Meanwhile, surface profile measurement has not been carried out by using the developed femtosecond laser chromatic confocal probe. For the verification of the performance of developed probe in profile measurement, in this paper, an experimental setup is built and a basic experiment is carried out. By using the probe with further improved thermal stability, the measurement of a sample surface profile is carried out. In this paper, the development of the experimental setup with the femtosecond laser chromatic confocal probe, as well as the results of the surface profile measurements, is presented.