Production of biologically safe digested manure for land application by a full-scale biogas plant with heat-inactivation

Shigeki Uemura, Akiyoshi Ohashi, Hideki Harada, Toshihiro Hoaki, Takashi Tomozawa, Takahiko Ohara, Reiichi Ojima, Tetsuya Ishida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Inactivation of indigenous indicator micro-organisms such as faecal coliforms, coliphages, and faecal streptococci was investigated in a full-scale biogas plant that mainly digested cow manure. The biogas plant consisted principally of a feed reservoir, fermentation tank (37 °C), heat-inactivation process (70 °C), and five reservoirs for the heat-inactivated, digested manure that was used by a local livestock farmer as liquid fertilizer. Although all the indicators tended to exhibit stepwise decreases with each stage of treatment, coliphages were found to be more capable of surviving than faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci under mesophilic anaerobic conditions as well as high temperature conditions (heat-inactivation at 70 °C). Liquid fertilizer produced at the biogas plant had faecal coliform densities less than the stipulations of the US EPA 40 CFR 503 Class A limits. Heat-inactivation tests indicated that although coliphages exhibited more tolerance than other bacterial indicators between 37 and 70 °C, they were more sensitive to continuous temperature increase than faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)256-260
Number of pages5
JournalWaste Management and Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Jun


  • Biogas plant
  • Heat-inactivation
  • Indicator micro-organisms
  • Liquid fertilizer
  • Livestock waste
  • Wmr 1349-6

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Pollution


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