With AKARI, we have performed a systematic study of interstellar dust grains in various environments of galaxies. In many cases, the IR emission of dust is an important tool to trace star-forming activities in galaxies. However it is much more than just star-formation tracers. AKARI has revealed the detailed properties of dust grains in regions not relevant to star formation as well, some of which are found not to follow our old empirical knowledge. Because of its unique capabilities, such as near-and far-IR spectroscopy, and all-sky coverage, AKARI has provided new knowledge on the processing of carbonaceous grains including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We present the latest results obtained from our AKARI observations of the ISM in our Galaxy and nearby galaxies.