There is increasing attention toward factors that potentially contribute to antibiotic resistance (AR), as well as an interest in exploring the emergence and occurrence of antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB). We monitored six ARBs that cause hospital outbreaks in wastewater influent to highlight the presence of these ARBs in the general population. We analyzed wastewater samples from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) and hospital wastewater (HW) for six species of ARB: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteria (CARBA), extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteria (ESBL), multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter (MDRA), multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE).We registered a high percentage of ARBs in MWWTP samples (>66%) for all ARBs except for MDRP, indicating a high prevalence in the population. Percentages in HW samples were low (<78%), and no VRE was detected throughout the study. CARBA and ESBL were detected in all wastewater samples, whereas MDRA and MRSA had a high abundance. This result demonstrated the functionality of using raw wastewater at MWWTP to monitor the presence and extent of ARB in healthy populations. This kind of surveillance will contribute to strengthening the efforts toward reducing ARBs through the detection of ARBs to which the general population is exposed.
- ESKAPE bacteria
- Healthy people;municipalwastewater treatment plant
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases
- Pharmacology (medical)