Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a pathological condition with a clustering of metabolic components and is a well-known risk and prognostic factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, the prevalence and clinical significance of MetS remain to be fully elucidated in chronic heart failure (CHF), an important clinical syndrome caused by various cardiac abnormalities. Methods and Results: The present nationwide, large-scale clinical study enrolled 3,603 patients with stage C/D CHF from 6 institutes in Japan. First, the prevalence of MetS in CHF patients was demonstrated to be 45% in males and 19% in females, which is more than double compared with the general population in Japan. The CHF patients with MetS were characterized by younger age, higher prevalence of current smoking and drinking, IHD, and hypertensive heart disease, whereas the prevalence of HF with preserved ejection fraction and MetS was higher in elderly female patients. Next, the contribution of the metabolic components (waist circumference, hypertension, glucose intolerance/diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia) was found to be comparable between the ischemic and the non-ischemic CHF patients. Conclusions: The prevalence of MetS in CHF patients is more than double compared with the general population in Japan and suggest that the metabolic components may have a substantial effect on the development of both ischemic and non-ischemic CHF.
- Chronic heart failure
- Metabolic syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine