Macrophages are important for maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. Here, we show that PPARβ 2/δ(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β2/δ) directly regulates CD300a in macrophages that express the immunoreceptor tyrosine based-inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing receptor. In mice lacking CD300a, high-fat diet (HFD) causes chronic intestinal inflammation with low numbers of intestinal lymph capillaries and dramatically expanded mesenteric lymph nodes. As a result, these mice exhibit triglyceride malabsorption and reduced body weight gain on HFD. Peritoneal macrophages from Cd300a-/-mice on HFD are classically M1 activated. Activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/MyD88 signaling by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in prolonged IL-6 secretion in Cd300a-/-macrophages. Bone marrow transplantation confirmed that the phenotype originates from CD300a deficiency in leucocytes. These results identify CD300a-mediated inhibitory signaling in macrophages as a critical regulator of intestinal immune homeostasis.
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