All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but the effect of cytokines regulating myeloid differentiation on ATRA-induced APL cells is poorly understood. In this study, maturation and proliferation of fresh APL cells were examined when induced in vitro by granulocyte or granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF or GM-CSF) in combination with ATRA. APL cells showed a low proliferating activity when induced by ATRA alone. In contrast, cells induced by G-CSF or GM-CSF alone showed increased DNA syntheses, the levels of which were not significantly affected by the combination of ATRA with CSFs. Interestingly, G-CSF or GM-CSF potentiated the capability of ATRA-induced cells to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), while G-CSF or GM-CSF alone induced no NBT reduction. Furthermore, in several patients examined, APL cells induced by ATRA with G-CSF showed an increased activity of chemotaxis and CD11a expression. These findings suggest that G-CSF or GM-CSF can potentiate differentiation of ATRA-induced APL cells while stimulating their proliferating activity as well, and that G-CSF, rather than GM-CSF, may be a useful adjunct to promote ATRA-induced differentiation of APL.
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - 1994 Aug|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research