Potential modification of groundwater arsenic removal filter commonly used in Nepal: A review

Haribansha Timalsina, Bandita Mainali, Michael J. Angove, Takeshi Komai, Shukra Raj Paudel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Groundwater arsenic contamination is a serious concern in many countries around the globe because of the noxious impacts of arsenic on human health. In Nepal, contamination has seriously affected many districts of Terai region, leading to significantly increased risks of cancer and mass poisoning. Whilst many technologies have been available to remove arsenic from contaminated water, the Kanchan Arsenic Filter (KAF) still stands ahead in terms of efficiency, affordability, operation and maintenance. However, some recent studies have revealed poor performance of KAF, and highlighted the need to improve performance. This paper proposes a slight modification in KAF design with integration of a human hair layer, and the replacement of iron nails in the system with iron mesh. The authors reviewed the potential adsorption mechanisms and suitability of a hair layer on integration to existing arsenic removal filter. Hair contains a large quantity of keratin protein containing sulfhydryl amino acid (cysteine) which has a strong binding affinity for As(III). This review suggests that such a modification to the KAF filter could be effective, but further experimental evidence is required.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100549
JournalGroundwater for Sustainable Development
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Feb
Externally publishedYes


  • Adsorption
  • Arsenic removal
  • Cysteine
  • Groundwater
  • Hair layer
  • Iron mesh
  • Keratin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Water Science and Technology


Dive into the research topics of 'Potential modification of groundwater arsenic removal filter commonly used in Nepal: A review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this