We investigated whether machine learning methods could potentially identify a subgroup of persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who show vitamin B6 responsiveness by selected phenotype variables. We analyzed the existing data from our intervention study with 17 persons. First, we focused on signs and biomarkers that have been identified as candidates for vitamin B6 responsiveness indicators. Second, we conducted hypothesis testing among these selected variables and their combinations. Finally, we further investigated the results by conducting cluster analyses with two different algorithms, affinity propagation and k-medoids. Statistically significant variables for vitamin B6 responsiveness, including combination of hypersensitivity to sound and clumsiness, and plasma glutamine level, were included. As an a priori variable, the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS) scores was also included. The affinity propagation analysis showed good classification of three potential vitamin B6-responsive persons with ASD. The k-medoids analysis also showed good classification. To our knowledge, this is the first study to attempt to identify subgroup of persons with ASD who show specific treatment responsiveness using selected phenotype variables. We applied machine learning methods to further investigate these variables’ ability to identify this subgroup of ASD, even when only a small sample size was available.
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