We present spin-independent and spin-spin interquark potentials for charmonium states, that are calculated using a relativistic heavy quark action for charm quarks on the PACS-CS gauge configurations generated with the Iwasaki gauge action and 2+1 flavors of Wilson clover quark. The interquark potential with finite quark masses is defined through the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter amplitude. The light and strange quark masses are close to the physical point where the pion mass corresponds to Mπ ≈ 156(7) MeV, and charm quark mass is tuned to reproduce the experimental values of ηc and J/ψ states. Our simulations are performed with a lattice cutoff of a-1 ≈ 2.2 GeV and a spatial volume of (3 fm)3.We solve the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation with resulting charmonium potentials as theoretical inputs. The resultant charmonium spectrum below the open charm threshold shows a fairly good agreement with experimental data of well-established charmonium states.