Our purpose was to clarify factors that influence the level of depression of Japanese children with anorectal malformations (ARM). The subjects comprised 66 children with ARM, aged 0-16 years, and their mothers. Patients were divided into three groups (Group 1: aged 0-5 years, Group 2: 6-11 years, and Group 3: 12-16 years). The level of depression of the children aged 6-16 years was investigated by Kovac's children's depression inventory (CDI). The psychological status of their mothers was assessed by Spielberger's state-trait anxiety index (STAI) and Zung's self-rating depression scale (SDS). The classification of ARM and the clinical condition were also investigated. Defecation scores were assigned for the degree of bowel dysfunction. The level of depression in the patients was more marked in Group 3 than in Group 2 according to the CDI score. Significant correlations between the CDI score of the child and the STAI-1, STAI-2 and SDS scores of the mother were observed in Group 2, but not in Group 3. In Group 2, the STAI-1 score of the mothers was significantly influenced by the degree of bowel dysfunction in her child. In Group 3, the CDI score was significantly correlated with the constipation score. This study revealed that bowel dysfunction is the important factor that influences the level of depression of the children with ARM. In the period of childhood during which the child attends primary school, bowel dysfunction indirectly influences the level of depression of children through the psychological status of mothers. However, bowel dysfunction directly influences the level of depression of children in adolescent patients.
- Anorectal malformations
- Bowel function
- Mother-child relationship
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health